The unusual natural of the cranberry's PACs is that they have an A-type linkage between the proanthocyanidin molecules.. This is a dimer or two PACS attached to each other. Each PAC molecule has three 6 carbon rings in it which is the basic structure for flavonoids. When you take in cranberries, some of the PACs get filtered out in the kidney and pass into urine. PACs can then bind to the bladder wall. The build up of these A-type linked PACs prevents bacteria from getting to the surface of your bladder protecting you from infection. This is a great find and now researchers believe this may help individuals who have stomach ulcers. Some stomach ulcers are due to an overgrowth and over-linking of a bacterium known as Helicobacter pylori to the stomach lining. Perhaps PACs can bind to the stomach lining much the same way they do to the bladder and prevent these bacteria from binding. Recent experiments are indicating this is true.
PACs tend to come in polymeric form (oligomeric) but can be found in individual units (monomeric) based on a flavonoid structure of three 6 Carbon rings. Typically, nature tends to mix them all together. So, you get monomers all the way up to complex polymers with the same repeating 3 ring structure. The only difference within this group of molecules is their shape and how they attach to each other (linkage).
The Flavanoplus blends are ideal to create the next generation oral hygiene in form of toothpastes, chewing tablets or sweeteners with only natural powerful ingredients that exist for centuries fill up with anti-oxidants, anti-inflammatory polyphenols that included Cranberry proanthocyanidins who prevent gun diseases and prevent urinary infections, Cocoa Flavanols also known to help the Cardio vascular system and memory by regenerating elasticity of arteries and improving the fluidity of the blood which help to a better oxygenation of all organs including the brain.
While more than 80% of the population aged 60 years and higher suffer from receding gums combined to the slow loss of memory Studies are widening several University confirming that Cranberry extracts protect against the oral disease, called periodontitis combining more than 266 sharp scientific studies converge to the facts that the flavanols in cocoa have beneficial effects for the cardio - vascular system by improving the elasticity of arteries and increasing the fluidity of the blood flow which helps to boost the memory capacity of the brain with the additional oxygen supply. Fact is that with age, memory declines in all human beings. All of these studies also agreed also that daily consumption of flavonoids helps and is required to maintain their beneficial effects.
Researchers at Laval University in Quebec City studied the positive impact from the cranberry polyphenols by subjecting cells oral in vitro to attack some of the 500 species of bacteria that form plaque. The addition of cranberry extracts show that protection has reached in several cases 100%.(Dr. Daniel Grenier Université Laval 2011) Cranberry polyphenols inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria and reduce inflammation. Exploring the properties of cranberries on oral health as part of his Ph.D., Charles Bodet in an article that appeared in the scientific journal "Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition" concludes that the addition of toothpastes and mouthwashes fill up with Cranberry polyphenols would be a preventive treatment of the future against periodontitis and caries.
The production of caries and consumption of chocolate are often cited in the literature, with the intake of chocolate considered detrimental for tooth health. However, this negative effect is due to high concentrations of compounds present in chocolate other than cocoa, such as sugar. Ferrazzano et al. were of the first to note the possible protective effect of cocoa on dental caries. Cocoa products contain inhibitors of the dextransucrase enzyme, which is responsible for the formation of the plaque extracellular polysaccharides from sucrose.
Moreover, phenolic substances may be responsible for the observed anti-caries effect of cocoa powder. Indeed, a water-soluble extract, of cocoa powder was shown to significantly reduce caries scores in rats infected with Streptococcus sobrinus, a potent cariogenic α-haemolytic streptococcus. Complementary studies have demonstrated that cocoa polyphenols inhibit the growth of S. sanguinis, but not that of S. mutans. Although S. mutans appears to be refractory to the growth-inhibitory or lethal effects of the cocoa polyphenol pentamer in routine studies, the compound still managed to significantly inhibit acid production from sucrose. Indeed, a recent study reports on the use of the ground husk of cocoa beans, a by-product of cocoa manufacture, to prepare a mouth rinse for children that was even more effective in decreasing plaque scores.
Tomofuji et al. studied the potential effects of a cocoa-enriched diet (10% of the total food intake) on gingival oxidative stress in a rat-periodontitis model and concluded that a diet rich in cocoa could diminish periodontitis-induced oxidative stress, which, in turn, might suppress the progression of periodontitis. In fact, they observed that rats with induced-experimental periodontitis which were fed a cocoa-enriched diet did not show impairments in serum reactive oxygen metabolite levels or gingival levels for 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, nor did they exhibit a reduced/oxidized glutathione ratio, as did the control group. They proposed further studies to definitively establish the bacterial pathogens in the periodontium and the optimum dose of cocoa in the diet, along with new experiments to develop an inflammatory process equivalent to chronic periodontitis in humans.
Mao et al. suggested that the consumption of some cocoas and chocolates could reduce the risk for dental caries and periodontal disease, justifying their hypothesis on the basis of purified cocoa flavanol oligomers’ immunomodulatory effects on the in vitro production of cytokines IL-1 , IL-2, IL-4, and IL-5. These authors established a biphasic-type effect in which the larger (hexamer through decamer) Procyanidin fractions showed more activity in regulating cytokine production. In the case of IL-5, the smaller Procyanidin fractions (monomer through trimer) can augment IL-5 secretion. This cytokine is implicated in the differentiation of B cells to IgA-producing plasma cells. IgA is considered to be protective in periodontal diseases; therefore in this enhanced effect of certain cocoa oligomer fractions could be therapeutic for periodontal disease. Phenols from Cocoa in Tooth Health
The human health benefits from consumption of cranberry products have been associated with the fruits' unique flavonoid composition, including a complex profile of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins. However, when processed by techniques such as pressing, canning, concentrating, or drying, a number of these natural components may be compromised or inactivated due to physical separation, thermal degradation, or oxidation. Fresh cranberries were compared to freeze-dried berries and individual fruit tissues (skin and peeled fruit). Products examined included cranberry juices (commercial and prepared from concentrate), cranberry sauces (commercial and homemade), and sweetened-dried cranberries (commercial). Freeze-drying resulted in no detectable losses of anthocyanins or proanthocyanidins from cranberry fruits. Anthocyanins were localized in the skin. Proanthocyanins were higher in the skin than in the flesh, with the exception of procyanidin A-2 dimer which was concentrated in the flesh. Anthocyanins were significantly higher in not-from-concentrate juice than in reconstituted juice from concentrate (8.3 mg and 4.2 mg/100 mL, respectively). Similarly, proanthocyanidins were markedly higher in not-from-concentrate juice compared to juice from concentrate (23.0 mg and 8.9 mg/100 mL, respectively). Homemade sauce contained far higher anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins (15.9 and 87.9 mg/100 g, respectively) than canned sauces processed with whole berries (9.6 and 54.4 mg/100 g, respectively) or jelled-type (1.1 and 16 mg/100 g, respectively). Sweetened-dried cranberries were quite low in anthocyanins (7.9 mg/100 g), but they still retained considerable proanthocyanidins (64.2 mg/100 g). Commercially processed products contained significantly lower levels of polyphenols as compared to fresh and home-processed preparations. Anthocyanins were more sensitive to degradation than proanthocyanidins.
As cranberry juices and other products are increasingly consumed for their recognized health benefits (including prophylaxis against urinary tract infection), it is relevant to consider how various degrees of commercial and home processing can alter innate levels of the biologically active flavonoids (especially anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins) characteristic to the intact fruits.
© 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®
<< New tStudy supports cranberry + probiotics combination
for anti-UTI benefits
By Stephen Daniells, 15-Jun-2016
A combination of proanthocyanidins (c-PAC) derived from cranberries with select probiotic strains may reduce
the invasiveness of Escherichia coli, and help protect against urinary tract infections (UTIs).
The anti-UTI effects of cranberry are well-documented and are reported to due to PACs obstructing the adherence of E.
coli to epithelial cells.
There are also reports that commercial probiotic Lactobacillus sp. May have inhibit the growth and displace E. coli, and so
the researchers examined if there could be synergistic effects of combining cranberry PACs and select probiotic strains to
further block the pathogenic effects of E. coli.
Results published in the Journal of Functional Foods indicated that the presence of probiotics did not inhibit the anti-E. coli
invasion activity of the cranberry PACs at concentrations greater than 36 micrograms per mL.
“This observation is primarily attributed to the presence of adhesive organelles on the surface of [E. coli] but not on the
surface of L. acidophilus,” wrote researchers from the University of Wisconsin–Madison, Complete Phytochemical
Solutions, and UAS Laboratories. The PACs could agglutinate or bind the E. coli because of these adhesion organelles.
In addition, incubating E. coli with a blend of L. acidophilus, L. gasseri, L. plantarum, L. rhamnosus and B. animalis subsp.
Lactis in the absence of PACs was found to prevent invasion by E. coli, “indicating that probiotics may contribute to
providing an inhospitable environment of ExPEC in the gastrointestinal tract”, they said.
“[T]his pilot study provides insight on the potential mechanistic role of the
combination of (a) probiotics selected from common vaginal inhabitants along
with (b) c-PAC from high quality cranberry powder, on inhibiting the invasiveness
of [E. coli],” wrote the researchers. “The study of these bioactive compound
combinations is important to facilitate the development of future functional foods.
“Clearly, further studies are needed to confirm these in vitro findings in an in vivo
system, but this study provides evidence that rationale product design by
combining synergistic functional food ingredients may have a role in promoting
health in targeted applications.”
“Supporting the efficacy of finished product formulas”
Dr Greg Leyer, Chief Scientific Officer, UAS Labs and co-author on the paper,
told NutraIngredients-USA: “UAS Labs continues to invest in research to support
efficacy of finished product formulas. The intent of the study was to better understand the potential mechanisms of
probiotics when combined with specific cranberry bioactive compounds, and we observed interesting synergies.
“We’re pleased to offer our customers worldwide the confidence knowing these products are solidly backed by science.”
Source: Journal of Functional Foods
August 2016, Volume 25, Pages 123–134, doi: 10.1016/j.jff.2016.05.015
“Ability of cranberry proanthocyanidins in combination with a probiotic formulation to inhibit in vitro invasion of gut epithelial
cells by extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli”
Authors: M.A. Polewski, C.G. Krueger, J.D. Reed, G. Leyer
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